A standardized, cumulative index of cross-fitness is actually calculated for each and every combination of maternal forest and you may pollen donor, centered on mature good fresh fruit set, seed products germination, and you may survivorship and you can growth of seedlings. For each variety, mixed-model research off difference was applied to assess the consequences regarding crossing medication (fixed feeling; that have maternal tree integrated as an arbitrary feeling) into percentage of hand-pollinated herbs form mature fresh fruit, rates of seed products germination and you can seedling survivorship, seedling dimensions from the step 1 yr, and you can cumulative exercise. Multiple activities was examined using ANOVA: (a) in addition to all service, (b) excluding unbalanced providers, to allow review out of communications words, (c) without selfing treatment (just like the maternal woods have been mainly or entirely notice-incompatible), and you may (d) group all the in this-Sinharaja outcrossing service to evaluate the result out of in this- vs. between-forest crossing. The outcome away from crossing distance on every parameter try next checked-out playing with linear otherwise quadratic regression data, depending on the shape of the partnership. Finally, for each maternal tree, the results away from nearest-neighbors and you can much time-distance mating was in fact estimated due to indicator of biparental inbreeding despair and outbreeding anxiety, correspondingly, predicated on cumulative fitness viewpoints.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable www.datingranking.net/it/incontri-bhm, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: Fdos,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in 0% and <1% fruit="fruit" set="set">2,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.1%>